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Network Devices

Network devices or communication devices are the units that mediate data in a computer network and also called network equipment.

Some network devices are as follows :

(i) Ethernet Card :- It is a kind of network adapter. These adapters support the Ethernet standard for high speed network connections via cables. Ethernet card are sometimes known as network interface card (NIC). Ethernet card are available in several different standard  packages called form factors. Ethernet cards may operate at different network speeds depending on the protocol standard they support.

(ii) Modem (MOdulator DEModulator) :- Modem is a device that converts digital signal to analog signal (modulator) at the sender's site and converts back analog signal to digital signal (demodulator) at the receiver's end, in order to make communication possible via telephone lines.It enables a computer to transmit data over telephone or cable lines.
Modems are of two types:
(a) Internal Modem :- Fixed within a computer
(b) External Modem :- Connected externally to a computer.

(iii) Wi-Fi Card :- These are small and portable cards that allow to connect to the internet through a wireless network.In these cards, transmission is done through radio waves. The antenna transmits the radio signals to those equipment, which has Wi-Fi cards.

(iv) Switch :- A switch is a hardware device, which is used to connect devices or segments of the network into smaller subsets of LAN segments. The main purpose of segmenting is to prevent the traffic overloading in a network.

(v) Bridge :- Bridge sever a similar function as switches. A bridge filters data traffic at a network boundary. Bridge reduce the amount of traffic on a LAN by dividing it into two segments.
Traditional bridge support one network boundary, whereas switches usually offer four or more hardware ports. Switches are sometimes called multiport bridges.

(vi) Hub :- A hub is a device, used with computer system to connect several computer together.It acts as a centralized connection to several computers with the central node or server. It is a multiport device, which provides access to compute. 
There are two types of hub :
(a) Active Hub :- An active hub acts as repeaters.It amplifiers the signal as it moves from one devices to another.
(b) Passive Hub :- A passive hub simply passes the signal from one connected device to another.

(vii) Router :- Router is a hardware device which is designed to take incoming packets, analyses the packets, moving the packets to another network, converting the packets to another network interface, dropping the packets, directing packets to the appropriating locations etc. Routers are called hop in the series.

(viii) Gateway :- A gateway is a devices, which is used to dissimilar networks, so that each side can communicate with each other. The gateway is a mixture of hardware components and software. It established an intelligent connection between a local network and external networks, which are completely different in structure.

(ix) Repeater :- Repeater is a hardware device. It is used to amplify the feeble signals when they are transported over a long distance. The basic function of a repeater is to amplify the incoming signal re-transmit it to the other device.

(x) RJ45 Connector :- RJ45 stands for Registered Jack-45. It is an eight wire connector. RJ45 connector is used to connect computers onto a Local Area Network(LAN). It is commonly used in telephony applications and networking. It is also used for serial connections.

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