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Hub , Switches , Gateways , and Routers

Hub: Hub is pure electronic device used to connect workstation and servers.It is a broadcasting passive device,no software is associated with it.It has simple operation  and the cost is low.Traffic is high and performance is low.It operates at physical layer.

Repeater: A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and re-transmits at a higher power , or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can over longer distances.
           In computer networking,because repeaters work with the actual physical signal, and do not attempt to interpret the data being transmitted , they operate on the physical layer, the first layer of the OSI model. 

Switch: Switch is also pure electronic device but associated with software.It is an active device that maintains look-up table to keep track of system.The cost is 3 to 5 times of hub,traffic is low and performance is good.

Bridge: Bridge is also an active devices used to connect multiple LANS.It is associated with software  maintains look-up table to keep track LANs.Filtering and forwarding is design criteria for bridge.Bridge will be having only physical layer and data link layer.

Router: Router is a sophisticated electronic devices used to connect different similar network.All routing algorithm are running is routers.It operates upto network layer.

Brouter: Brouter is a combination of bridge and Router.

Gateway: The network which differ at transport layer level or application layer level are connected through special junction boxes called as gateways.
           Gateways is used to connect different dissimilar networks.It is called protocol converter.

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