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IPv6 :- It is of 128 bits or 16 bytes. Length is time the length address of IPv4 address.

Notations :-

 (i) Dotted-Decimal :- It is used for IPv4 compatibility.
       221. 14. 65. 11. 105. 45. 170. 34. 12. 234. 18. 0. 14.0. 115. 255  (116)

(ii) Colon Hexadecimal :- It is used to make the address more readable. In this notation the 128 bits are divided into 8 section each of 2 bytes in length. [Two bytes in Hexadecimal required 4 Hexadecimal digits.]
  FDEC: BA98: 7654: 3210: ADBF: BBFF: 2922: FFFF

Abbreviation :- It is a technique to reduce the length of IPv6 address. It is done by omitting/removing the leading zeros of a section.
[NOTE : Only the leading zeros can be dropped]

Zero-Compression :

Types of Address space in IPv6 :-

(i) Unicast Addresses :- It defines single interface  or computer. The packet sent to a unicast address will be routed to the intended PC or recipient.

(ii) Multicast Addresses :- These are used to define a group of computers/hosts. In this, each member of the group receives the packet.

(iii) Anycast Addresses :- Defines group of nodes or computers that all share a single address. A packet with anycast address is delivered to only one member of the group which is the most reachable one.

(iv) Broadcasting and multicasting :- IPv6 does not define broadcasting and considered it as a special case of multicasting.

Changes in IPv6 :-

i) Larger address space ⇒ 2 to the power 96 time more address than IPv4.
ii) Better Header format ⇒ options are separated from Base Header.
iii) New options ⇒ Additional functionalities.
iv) Allowance for Extension ⇒ Extension of Protocol
v) Support for Resource Allocation ⇒ 1) Traffic class 2) Flow Label  }---> Special Handling of the packet
vi) Support for More Security ⇒ Encryption and Authentications options

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